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Cardiovascular Physiology Concepts

Richard E. Klabunde, PhD

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Cardiovascular Physiology Concepts textbook cover

Click here for information on Cardiovascular Physiology Concepts, 2nd edition, a textbook published by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins (2011)


Cardiovascular Physiology Concepts textbook cover

Click here for information on Normal and Abnormal Blood Pressure, a textbook published by Richard E. Klabunde (2013)



Electrocardiogram Leads

As the heart undergoes depolarization and repolarization, electrical currents spread throughout the body because the body acts as a volume conductor.  The electrical currents generated by the heart are commonly measured by an array of electrodes placed on the body surface and the resulting tracing is called an electrocardiogram (ECG, or EKG). By convention, electrodes are placed on each arm and leg, and six electrodes are placed at defined locations on the chest.  These electrode leads are connected to a device that measures potential differences between selected electrodes to produce thecharacteristic ECG tracings.

Some of the ECG leads are bipolar leads (e.g., standard limb leads) that utilize a single positive and a single negative electrode between which electrical potentials are measured.  Unipolar leads (augmented leads and chest leads) have a single positive recording electrode and utilize a combination of the other electrodes to serve as a composite negative electrode. Normally, when an ECG is recorded, all leads are recorded simultaneously, giving rise to what is called a 12-lead ECG.

Details of the three types of ECG leads can be found by clicking on the following links:

Revised 04/06/07



DISCLAIMER: These materials are for educational purposes only, and are not a source of medical decision-making advice.